The DNA Network
Discipleship Network of American consists of an immensely talented nationwide team of men and women committed to discipling people to become disciple makers.
Founder & President
Discipleship Network Of America
Phil serves as President of Discipleship Network of America (DNA), a nationwide network of people committed to following Christ’s life of winning and discipling others to become disciple makers. The spiritual reproductive ministry of DNA flows out of the lives of people focused on Christ in their work, marriage, family, neighborhood, and church. A former Marine machine gunner and attorney, Phil is an author and popular national speaker at men’s events such as Iron Sharpens Iron and Promise Keepers. He speaks to all branches of the U. S. military at voluntary chapels on leadership, core values, and the truths he has learned that have transformed his life. Phil also speaks at couples events with his wife, Susy, and at family conferences. He has been featured twice on Focus On the Family and, along with Mike Wilkins, is the subject of Day of Discovery’s 2010 documentary, “The War Within: Finding Hope For Post-Traumatic Stress." For full biographical information, click here.
Discipleship Network Of America
In addition to her role in providing essential oversight, direction and management in the work of DNA, Susy joins her husband, Phil, to speak at several family and marriage conferences around the U.S. each year. As an attorney, Susy served as legal counsel for Delta Air Lines for ten years, and was Assistant Corporate Secretary. She resigned her position with Delta in 1985 in order to devote herself full time to Phil and their children. Susy homeschooled their six children through high school. Three of them are now married. Susy is a coauthor of Unlimited Partnership: Building Intimacy and Teamwork Into Your Marriage, Optimize Your Marriage: Making an Eternal Impact on Family and Friends, and From Hell To Eternity: Life After Trauma. Susy speaks with Phil at marriage and family conferences and has appeared with Phil and various other family members on nationwide radio programs. Susy also appears in the 2010 Day of Discovery documentary, “The War Within: Finding Hope For Post-Traumatic Stress.”
Director of Operations & Church Ministry
Discipleship Network of America
Paul travels the country with his father, Phil, and his sister, Anna, speaking at conferences on mentoring, conflict resolution, incarnational ministry, our call to be culture-creators as image bearers of God, principles for enriching family relationships, issues in pop culture and entertainment, and proven methods for storying the gospel to reach a new generation. Paul has a passion for drawing upon his interests in theology and church history in order to help churches, leaders and families rediscover the power of the gospel in personal relationships and contemporary life.
Paul appears with Phil on their daily one-minute broadcast, A Discipleship Moment, which airs on over 550 stations in the United States and Canada. Paul attended Bryan College as a Presidential Scholar where the faculty selected him from among his classmates three years in a row to receive the P.A. Boyd Award for Influence & Character. After receiving academic awards from both Bible and Business departments, Paul graduated magna cum laude from Bryan College in 2005 with a B.A. in Bible and a B.S. in Business Administration. He is currently pursuing a Masters of Christian Studies degree from Regent College in Vancouver, British Columbia.
Paul served as a leader with Young Life in Chattanooga from 2005 to 2012, mentoring high school students, speaking at their events, and meeting with guys one on one weekly for discipleship. As part of his current role with DNA as Director of Church Ministry, Paul heads up a dynamic partnership between the disciple making ministry of DNA and The Mission Chattanooga, a vibrant and creative church on Chattanooga's southside. He has been discipling young men one-on-one for 10 years and speaking publically for 12 years, including engagements in Peru, Japan and multiple events in Canada for Promise Keepers.
Field Staff Director—Young Women’s Ministry
Discipleship Network of America
A conference speaker and the DNA Director of Young Women's Ministry, Anna is passionate about discipling teenage girls and seeing both parents and teens enter into the relationships and lives that God offers. She is also a coauthor of From Hell To Eternity: Life After Trauma. As a Presidential Scholar, Anna received the P. A. Boyd Award for Influence & Character and graduated magna cum laude from Bryan College in 2009 where she studied Spanish, Pre-Nursing and Bible. At Bryan College, Anna served as Vice President of her freshman class, a traveling presenter on the Worldview Team, and has been an adjunct speaker at conferences and conventions with Phil and Paul through DNA Ministries for eight years.
Field Staff Director - Northern Illinois and Iowa
Discipleship Network of America
Roy Abbott is the Founder and President of Focal Point Ministries. FPM is a regional ministry in northwest Illinois with a mission to train and equip the local church to minister to it’s men. It is accomplished through discipleship, training, and coaching. FPM also has a conference ministry called Iron Sharpens Iron which is also designed to equip the local church to reach men. The conference features seminars from the best of the best in men’s ministry in our nation. Roy and his wife, Kim, have been married for 27 years and have 3 grown children; Jesse (married to Amanda), Ben, and Christine.
Office: (815) 589-3413
Field Staff Director—South Arizona
Discipleship Network of America
Contact Brian at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Field Staff Director—Central Florida
Mike and Wendy could easily be poster children for what NOT to do in marriage. They have both experienced the devastation of unwanted divorce and all the lies that go along with it. Yet through God's grace and mercy they have experienced redemption that is beyond their greatest dreams and expectations. Now married for more than 20 years, parents, and grandparents they share practical and biblical principles for experiencing an abundant marriage.
Together Mike and Wendy are business owners. They serve as Field Staff Directors for the Discipleship Network of America Ministry in North Central Florida, and are also associated with an accredited through Intimate Life Ministries. Wendy has been involved in ministry to women for several years through the crisis pregnancy center, post abortion healing, bible studies, and discipleship. Mike is an ordained minister and elder in his church. He serves as the regional director for Florida Men of Integrity, a certified trainer for Honor Bound men's ministry, and is a graduate of the National Training Center through Man in the Mirror Ministries. He is also a certified trainer for Great Dad's Ministry and has been involved in discipling men for more than 15 years. He currently serves on the Women's Pregnancy Center board of directors in Ocala, Florida.
Contact Mike and Wendy:
Office # (352) 307-1207
Field Staff Director—Washington D.C. Area
Dave serves as Director and Pastor-at-Large of the Washington Area Coalition of Men's Ministries. He is a licensed and ordained pastor and Director of the Washington Area Coalition of Men’s Ministries (WACMM).
Dave served thirty years in the Federal Government holding senior policy and management positions in the U. S. Congress, the Executive Office of the President and the Executive Branch, where he was a member of the Senior Executive Service (SES). From 1981-1989, he served as a presidential appointee of President Ronald Reagan.
After his retirement in 1998, he worked as a consultant to federal agencies and corporations in leadership development and organizational change. He was also Director of the Washington DC Program of Trinity International University, served on the Board of Directors of the C. S. Lewis Institute and was a member of the executive committee for Stand in the Gap 2007. He currently serves on the Board of Directors of the Foundation for Manhood.
In 2001 he became Men’s Pastor at McLean Bible Church. Since 2007 he has been the Director of the Washington Area Coalition of Men’s Ministries (WACMM), a non-profit, non-denominational ministry to develop and encourage ministries to men throughout the Greater Washington DC Region. Founded in 1999, WACMM is one of the oldest and largest coalitions of local men’s ministries in the nation. Dave also speaks on biblical manhood and men’s issues at retreats, seminars and conferences in the Mid-Atlantic Region and across the nation. He is also a frequent contributor to New Man Magazine and is the author and producer of Fireproofing Your Marriage, Family and Life Men-Only Seminar.
Dave is a 1969 graduate of Ohio University and the Senior Managers in Government Program at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. He received his theological education from Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois.
Dave and his wife Susan reside in Kensington Maryland and are members of McLean Bible Church. They’ve led a couple’s small group for ten years and are active in Jews for Jesus. They have three adult children: Stacey, Michael and Brian and a granddaughter Emma Lynn.
Field Staff Director--Central/Southern Illinois
Tom Cheshire has been married to his helper and wonderful wife, Jan Cheshire, since 1982. They have two beautiful daughters, Amelia and Lindleigh. They have lived in the Springfield, IL, area since 1990.
Tom served in the USMC 1976-1980 where he fell in love with aviation and a career he had in corporate aviation from 1980 until 2002. Tom has been in men's ministry all his life, but has been in leadership in both his church as the lay men's leader and in the Springfield and Central IL community for over a decade. Tom is a field trainer for Man In The Mirror; Men's Ministry Coach for the National Coalition of Men's Ministry, Charter member of, and in the leadership of the National Conference Ministry Iron Sharpens Iron. Tom is also a leader and trainer for the men's curriculum Men's Fraternity. Tom is the former President and co-founder of Business Men In Christ (BMIC) located in Springfield IL.
Tom founded RPM, which is Relevant Practical Ministry for Men that is designed to come along side pastor's, leadership and men to help equip them to disciple and grow men and help them establish or re-create a sustainable disciple-making ministry to men in their local churches
My name is Tom Cheshire, and I work for God.
Office # (217) 622-4062
Field Staff Director--Ohio
Doug Dickson knows what life is like for the business and professional person; he spent 22 years in that realm himself. Earning a BS in BA, he helped capitalize one of the largest and best-known computer networks in the world, then was Director of Sales (and director of training) for a fast-growing investment and insurance company, overseeing the activities of five managers and 40 representatives.
He could not account for the emptiness of his soul, until that void was filled as he received Christ as Savior and Lord at age 30. He then wondered, how many people (even church-goers) are lost and don’t even know it? It became his consuming passion to know the Word of God and the God of the Word and to share this Good News with others. Eventually he earned a degree in theology and gave his life to this work. Since 1989 has been a full-time missionary to central Ohio. Through seminars, large events, small groups, and life-on-life he has discipled countless people and has personally led several hundred to Christ. He has also written 29 books, booklets, and Bible study guides, and also wrote a chapter for From Hell to Eternity.
Doug and Cathy have been married for 33 years, and have four adult children.
Contact Doug: doug.dickson3@gmail .com
Field Staff Director--San Diego, CA
Mike is a part-time Field Staff Director for San Diego. He has a B.A. in Psychology, is a licensed Real Estate Broker and is currently Vice President of Capmark Finance Inc. He has over 5 years of experience discipling men, both one-on-one and in small group settings. He writes Christian outreach material for business and professional colleagues and has served as a deacon of his church. He is gifted with faithfulness in relationships and the ability to encourage and evangelize wherever he goes.
Field Staff Director--New England
Brian has thirty years of experience laboring for Christ throughout the New England Region. He has served with The Navigators on campuses, military bases, and in the professional communities of five of the six New England states. In 1995, as part of a strategic alliance of Promise Keepers and The Navigators, Brian joined the staff of Promise Keepers as their New England Area Manager. He served in this capacity until 2000, when PK centralized all staff to Denver. Brian was then invited by Vision New England to initiate and direct their new Men’s Ministries focus. The goal of this ministry was to equip local churches to train men for spiritual leadership in their homes, churches and communities. In 2007 this ministry became Iron Sharpens Iron (ISI). Over the past four years, ISI conferences have expanded to over 36 cities nationwide, as well as adding a women's ISI conference that is held every two years.
Brian and his wife, Barbara, have been married for twenty-two years and have five children; Jessica, Michael, Matthew, Timothy and Susan. Brian and Barbara are members of Wintonbury Baptist Church where Brian serves on the elder board and as a men’s ministry leader. The Doyle Family resides in West Hartford, CT.
Office # (860) 233-8136
Field Staff Director--Southern Florida
David Dusek’s mission is to encourage and equip men to live their lives for Christ. He utilizes his life experiences – including his upbringing in a Mormon home, coming to Christ as an adult, and extensive business background – to reach men in a way that they can understand. David's vision is to engage all men where they are the "other six days of the week"---not just in church.
Before entering vocational ministry, David had a successful career in various areas of real estate development. He attended Whitman College in Washington state, and has a background in business management, sales and accounting.
David is the founder of “ROUGH CUT MEN”, which utilizes major motion picture clips as parables to engage men of all spiritual levels. David travels around the country, and the world, using the ROUGH CUT MEN movies and his powerful testimony to get men to be transparent with one another and with Jesus. He has spoken to thousands of men across the Southeast, engaging them with other men in a David and Jonathan model of friendship.
David is a Field Trainer on staff with Florida Men of Integrity (the Florida field ministry of The National Coalition of Men’s Ministries), a Field Staff Director with Discipleship Network of America and is also a Senior Associate trainer with Great Dads, a national fathering ministry. From 2007 until 2010, David worked in the field ministry with Man in the Mirror, training over 1000 pastors and men's leaders using the "No Man Left Behind" model of ministry development.
For the fifth consecutive year, David will be a seminar presenter at the “Iron Sharpens Iron” Men’s Conferences across the United States. He has been a guest minister on Sunday mornings at churches across the United States, and is a frequent writer for denominational men's magazines, online publications and is a contributing author for books addressing internet pornography with men. David also works closely with Teen Challenge Men's Centers across the United States, assisting in the recovery of men who have fallen prey to drug addiction.
A native of Florida, David resides in Sarasota with his wife, Joni and their five children. In his free time, he loves dates with his wife, watching the kids play sports and is a voracious reader. He is also a die hard fan of Florida Gators football.
Office # (941) 544-4799
Field Staff Director--DNA Oregon
Alex Kettles lives in Sherwood Oregon where he leads DNA Oregon, an afiliate of DNA (Discipleship Network of America). DNA Oregon is a network of men committed to following Christ's example of winning and discipling others to become disciple makers. The spiritual reproductive ministry of DNA flows out of the lives of men living alongside other men with the vision of a Christ-centered foundation extending to their marriage, family, marketplace and beyond. Although Alex's ministry is based in Oregon, for 26 years he has traveled to many other States like Alaska to work alongside other men. DNA Oregon extends throughout the Northwest.
Alex brings the intensity and passion of his years as an inside linebacker at Boise State to discipleship. He is a 30-year staff member of Campus Crusade for Christ and former chaplain for the Oregon State Football team.
Married to his wife, Sue, for over 32 years, Alex and Sue have raised four children and are enjoying life as grandparents.
Field Staff Director--DNA Northwest
Jim is the founder of DNA Northwest and has extensive experience in personally ministering to and discipling men. He has led and organized evangelism training seminars, personal evangelism training and other evangelistic events. He is regularly involved in small group Bible discussions and personal coaching and discipleship. He has a passion for experiencing the joys and pain of those he disciples and faithfully pointing them to Christ. He has a heart for helping people understand their life story and record it in their own words. He coaches many on how to write a personal letter of encouragement to meaningful people in their life. Ever since God healed some pain-filled relationships in Jim's life, he has had a passion for extending this ministry of reconciliation to those around him.
Office # (503) 397-2688
Field Staff Director - DNA Midwest
Joe is the Executive Director of JOURNEYMEN Men's Discipleship Ministry.
Journeymen is a new men’s discipleship ministry with training and curriculum designed to help churches make disciples of their men, teaching them to become like Jesus and lead other men and their families to Christ and into the church. Joe is helping church leaders start JOURNEYMEN groups in their churches, to see men’s small group discipleship multiply throughout their church bodies.
Joe also offers a range of training to local pastors and church leadership teams, from effective personal discipleship & evangelism training, to leadership development and whole-church disciplemaking strategies.
Joe and Susie have served on the staff of Life Builders, a ministry of Campus Crusade for Christ. Joe has also served on the pastor training team of Training Network International.
Joe and Susie do both men’s and women’s personal and small group discipleship and evangelism training. They also work together mentoring young couples in small groups to develop healthy new Christian marriages and families.
“Our aim is not just teaching what the Bible says. We want to become like Jesus. It’s more like personal faith training. The focus is on putting into practice what we learn. We teach our friends to share the gospel and develop their own lifestyle of disciplemaking. We are called to help the body of Christ fulfill its mission to make disciples of Jesus Christ across the street and around the world.”
Joe and Susie live with their five kids in a suburb of Minneapolis, MN.
Office # (952) 454-0210
Field Staff Director—DNA North Central
Field Staff Director - Winston-Salem, N.C.
David provides mentoring and discipleship for young men and businessmen in the marketplace and church community. He coordinates weekly meetings that help connect men to God, other men, and local churches. He also mentors young men and connects them with older male role models who can help them make godly choices in their daily lives. David is an associate with the Discipleship Network of America (DNA).
David networks with churches, schools, organizations, individuals, and businesses to help them engage their community for Christ. By coming alongside a local church, he helps them begin new types of ministries to reach the unchurched youth in their community. He regulary meets with pastors, prinicipals, and business leaders to encourage them and help them connect and partner with each other. David is a missionary with the North American Mission Board (NAMB).
David challenges, equips, and trains churches and the community to develop Christian Youth Mentoring programs for school-age boys and girls. He works with youth that may be most challenged to provide opportunities and outings that build relationships with adult role models. He coordinates one-to-one youth mentoring, weekly sports and discipleship activities, adventure outings, and trips to Christian camps and conferences. ; David is an associate with the Christian Association of Youth Mentoring (CAYM) as well as a member of Christian Businessmen Connections (CBMC).
Office # (336) 793-0687
Field Staff Director—Fund Development
Andy is a graduate of both Temple University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Pepperdine University in Malibu, California.
Andy has been heavily involved with several local churches holding major lay leadership roles. His experience also includes serving with Campus Crusade for Christ for 26 years in key management and leadership positions. He has also served as the first U.S. National Director for the Development Association for Christian Institutions (DACI) and as a development and management trainer for Campus Crusade for Christ.
He also is one of the co-founders of the Evangelical Development Ministry and currently serves as its President. The Evangelical Development Ministry exists to serve evangelical organizations in the critical areas of resource management and development through research, training and on-site counseling provided by a ministry-oriented team of experienced development, management and discipleship professionals so that the cause of Christ and His kingdom is advanced through wise stewardship and increased ministry fruitfulness.
Andy has long ago committed his career to full-time Christian work and ministry. His work, therefore, is more than merely doing a job--it is a commitment to the individuals and ministries he assists that is personal, professional and highly ministry oriented. It is his desire to transfer his skills and "know-how" to the ministries' staff leaving the ministry self sufficient.
Andy also frequently uses his experience and training in evangelism to reach the lost. Recently, he has participated on small teams of mature missionaries to speak evangelistically while also planting new mission churches in Russia and other Central European countries.
Andy has been married to wife, Brenda for 24 years and they have two sons, Bryan Andrew and Joseph Benjamin.
Office # (940) 759-5088
Field Staff Director—Chattanooga, TN
Bernie Ritterbush’s driving vision, to reestablish a culture of biblical manhood in the American church, has taken shape over the course of more than three decades in Christian ministry. After receiving Christ as a young man in 1972, Bernie left a career in insurance eight years later to pursue full time men’s ministry.
In his 16 years with Christian Business Men’s Committee (now Connection) in Fort Wayne, Ind., and Chattanooga, TN, Bernie developed a passion to see men grow to spiritual maturity through Gospel-centered discipleship. He envisions nothing less than a reestablished culture of biblical manhood in the American church and our society through a disciple-making ministry to men in every local church. This led him to found Men’s Ministry Network in 1996, where he has walked alongside local and national men’s ministry leaders to see this city’s families, churches and communities become centers of God-glorifying Christian discipleship. As the culmination of his journey of following Jesus, Bernie has developed an innovative approach to disciple-making, called The Jesus Trek, which is an Internet-based small group study. This, he believes, will lead American men to authentic manhood and spiritual maturity in Jesus Christ. Born and raised in Nebraska, Bernie graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Northwestern University in 1967 with a bachelor’s degree in economics. He and Ann have been married for more than 40 years, now live in Ringgold, GA, and are blessed with three children and three grandchildren.
Field Staff Director--Indiana
Darryl Sheggrud is the Executive Director at Men's Ministry Network. He is a men's ministry leader, a consultant at Men With a Purpose and was the president and owner of Sheggrud Insurance Agency.
The mission of Men’s Ministry Network is to "Jumpstart, resource, encourage, and equip men and men's ministries to be authentic christian men, husbands, fathers and leaders."This 16 year old ministry teaches men the "how tos" of the process of growing toward genuine Christian manhood. Practical help is provided by coaching ministries with local weekly host training, monthly regional fellowship and national Iron Sharpens Iron training conferences.
Office # (260) 459-7710
Brad is the President of Kingdom Warrior Ministries. Before starting this ministry, he served as the director of men's ministry in his home church and throughout the Pacific Northwest for his denomination. While formerly in the U.S. military, Brad performed as Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors for the Yokosuka Japan Christian Serviceman's Center, and spent fifteen years making disciples while laboring in the Navigators. He is a retired U.S. Navy Senior Chief Petty Officer. He holds a B.S. from Excelsior College, Albany, New York, and an M.T.S. and D.Min. from Columbia Evangelical Seminary (CES), Buckley, Washington. In addition Brad serves as an advisory member on the CES board of regents.
After spending ten years growing and leading a successful men's ministry in a local church, Brad felt God calling him to turn over the reigns and expand his sphere of influence to include helping churches and chapels. Kingdom Warrior (www.KingdomWarrior.net) is the result of that calling. As an NCMM certified men's ministry coach, Brad helps local pastors, chaplains, and men's ministry leaders design, implement, and evaluate an effective ministry to and through their men. In addition Kingdom Warrior partners with Iron Sharpens Iron (www.IronSharpensIron.net) to produce a regional equipping men's conference.
Brad is married and has two grown children. His wife serves as a pastor to Women. He enjoys fly-fishing, bow hunting, camping, and golfing.
Lee is currently the President of CBMC and a Ministry Partner for DNA. He is a stadium technician for the NFL and was formerly a Senior Business Development Executive at AMD. He has his B.A. in English, an MBA from Liberty University in Leadership, and was Senior Solution Architect, Certified Systems Engineer and Microsoft Certified Professional. He is passionate about one-on-one and small group discipleship and is active in speaking and teaching men and couples. He organizes and facilitates conferences and retreats for men and couples. He and his wife, Lisa, have 7 beautiful children whom they have homeschooled throughout their education.
Office # (423) 308-6015
Field Staff Director--Men With A Purpose
Chris hails from Central New York State and graduated from the State University of New York with a BA in education. Chris was an instructor in the public school system for ten years and then spent fifteen years as a marketing and sales executive in the paper and packaging industry.
In 1998, Chris was called to develop a disciple making men’s ministry for the Evangelical Free Church of America and joined the National Ministries team of the EFCA National Office in Minneapolis, MN. Chris had been involved in developing an effective men’s ministry at Faith EFC in Fort Collins, CO and served as Men’s Ministries Director for the EFCA Rocky Mountain District before joining the EFCA Men’s Ministries National Board of Directors in 1995. He was Vice President of that board in 1997, when asked to take on the new directorship assignment. Chris founded a new Men’s Ministries emphasis called “Men With a Purpose” that assists churches as they strengthen their men’s disciple making ministries.
In 2007, Chris re-launched Men With a Purpose as a ministry of Discipleship Network of America, serving churches nationwide. He speaks frequently in leadership development retreat and conference settings and coaches a select few churches each year through Men With a Purpose's "Four:Nineteeen" coaching ministry. Chris co-authored Seven Keys to a Highly Successful Ministry to Men for local church men’s leaders. He is a founding member of the National Coalition of Men’s Ministries and serves on the executive board of that organization. He is also a founding board member of the Maryland Coalition of Men’s Ministries and serves as Training Director for the Washington Area Coalition of Men's Ministries. In 2004, Chris appeared with a panel of men’s ministry experts on a two-day Focus on the Family radio program with Dr. James Dobson.
Chris and his wife Shelli have three grown children and three grandchildren. They live in Ellicott City, just outside of Baltimore, MD. Chris enjoys hunting, fishing, and leading men in small group and one-on-one discipling contexts. His real passion though, is helping to lead a disciple making men’s movement across America.
Office # (410) 750-2888
Field Staff Director--Raleigh, NC
Eddie Watkinsis a part-time Field Staff Director for DNA Ministries in Raleigh, North Carolina. A native of Wake County, NC, he received his Bachelor's degree from N.C. State University and then began a career in financial services. In 1984 Eddie became the founder and president of Edward Watkins & Associates, now Watkins Financial Group.
Eddie is involved in various professional organizations including NAIFA, NAHU, Society of Financial Services Professionals and Kingdom Advisors. Eddie coached youth baseball for more than 25 years through the West Raleigh Baseball Association, Inc. and the West Raleigh Exchange Club. He currently serves as the Chapel Leader of the Carolina Mudcats, the AA affiliate of the Cincinnati Reds.
Eddie has been discipling men for 15 years and ministers with his wife in marriage seminars, classes and small groups. He is a member of CBMC and is also affiliated with Great Commandment Ministries.
Eddie has been married to Betsy Cooper Watkins since June 3, 1973. They have two sons, Matthew and Seth. Eddie has served as an elder, deacon and Sunday School teacher in his church where his family is actively involved. He and his wife love working with couples focusing on marriage and teaching an Adult Bible Fellowship.
Office # (919) 851-3117